Argentina


external image Argentina_map.jpg
General Information:
Climate/Geography: Argentina is located in the southern half of Latin America (8). Bordered by Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, and the Atlantic, Argentina is the second largest country in Latin America (10). In Argentina, the Andes Mountains run along the western border and a plateau called Patagonia runs along the south (9). The Pampa is a grassy plain in the heart of Argentina while scrub forests cover the North (8). Chaco is the middle northern region and is a vast wooded plain (9). Mesopotamia is the northeastern part of Argentina and has a lot of the farming land (9). The area of Argentina is 3,761,274 square kilometers (8). The typical climate is humid and temperate in the Pampas, cold and damp in the Andes Mountains, and subtropical in Mesopotamia (9). Argentina as a whole typically has a moderate climate.
Government: Argentina is under a democratic republic rule (10). The government is divided into 23 provinces with Buenos Aires as the capital (10). Each province has their own governor, legislature, and constitution (10). There are independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches with a president, vice president, and cabinet (9). Citizens elect a president and vice president for four year terms and as well as senators who serve for 6 years (9). Argentina's three main branches of armed forces are the Navy, Army, and Air Force (9). Their military service is voluntary (9).
Population: Most of Argentina's population is of Italian or Spanish ancestry (9). The indigenous groups that once occupied the land now make up a small percentage of the population today (9). 1/3 of the population lives in Buenos Aires and it's suburbs (9). This is because many parts of Argentina have unfavorable climate and terrain. The official language of the population is Spanish (9). However, English and French are required of school children (9). The main indignous languages are Guarani, Quechua, and Tehuelche (9). The wealthy portion of the population are very well-dressed and closely follow the latest fashion trends of Paris (9). The common people wear ponchos, derby hats, and boots (9). Argentina has 80 universities and children ages 8-14 must attend school (9).
Religion: 90% of the Argentina population are
Roman Catholic (8). However, less than 20% of the population actually practice the religion (9). Many Roman Catholic followers in Argentina have incorporated spiritualism into the religion (9).
Economy: Most of the economic activity of Argentina takes place in Buenos Aires, Cordoba, and Santa Fe provinces (9). Service industries and manufacturing are 85% of the Gross Domestic Product of Argentina (9). Service industries include financial and insurance, retail, and transportation (9). Manufacturing consists of food processing, leather, electrical equipment, and printed materials and textiles (9). Petroleum is a chief mineral resource with Patagonia yielding most of the oil as well as natural gas resources (9). Most of the metals come from the Andes (9). To the people of Argentina, farmland is the most important resource (9). Pampa and Mesopotamia have the most fertile land which yeilds beef, corn, and wheat (9). Citrus fruits, cotton, flax, grapes, and milk are also harvested there (9). The chief importers are, Brazil, Columbia, and the United States (9). Their main trading partners are, Brazil, Chile, China, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United States (9). Argentina's chief exports are cereal, agricultural products, cooking oil, petroleum, processed foods, and natural gas (9). Their imports are chemicals, machinery, metal products, transportation equipment, and plastics (9). Argentina's form of currency is the Argentine Peso (11). As of April 28, 2008, one US Dollar converted to 3.22 Argentine Pesos (11).

8) Webb, Lois Sinaikl. "Latin America/Argentina". MultiCultural Cookbook of Life Cycles Celebration.
9) "Argentina."The World Book Encyclopedia. A-1. 2006.
10)"Background Information on Argentina." ArgentinaDiscover 2007 15 April 2008 <http://www.argentinadiscover.com/argentina_general_info.htm>.
11)"Argentina Currency." 2008 27 April 2008 <
http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/america/argentina/currency.htm>.

History:

During Argentina's history, it went through many periods where the country was run by different groups of people.[1]. There were two main indigenous groups that existed during this time.[1]. One group being Diaguita people of the northwest. [1] Also, there were the Guarani people of the southeast.[1]. Both indigenous groups helped to cultivate the country of Argentina.[1] In 1502 the indigenous people were in for a rude awakening. Juan Diaz de Solis was the first spaniard to set foot on Argentina.[1]. After he arrived, Argentina slowly began to develop under Spanish colonial rule.[2] "In 1536, Pedro de Mendoza founded the first settlement of the present Buenos Aires, but native attacks forced abandonment of the settlement, and Asunción became the unquestioned leading city of the Río de la Plata region." [2]. In the year1580 Buenos Aires was once again the focus of control. Juan de Garay once again settled in Buenos Aires, and then refounded it. [2] Later, Buenos Aires became the capital of Argentina."Buenos Aires received its semi-independance from Spain in 1616 under the viceroyalty of peru."[2].
Currency used in the Buenos Aires ports
Currency used in the Buenos Aires ports


In later years in cities to the West and North West of Argentina began to grow by supplying the mining towns with their goods. [2]. This caused Buenos Aires to be threatened by Portuguese competition.[2]. "In 1776 the Spanish government made Buenos Aires a free port and the capital of a viceroyalty that included present Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and (briefly) Bolivia." [2]. Shortly after, Buenos Aires became a flourishing port that imported and exported goods, such as products from cattle for the export of leather and other products, rather than importing and exporting precious metals like other nations. These and other political reasons made Buenos Aires become one of the most important ports and centers for importing and exporting in the region.[3]. As news traveled to the area about the French and American Revolution and the wars it caused, it began to bring liberal ideas to Latin America.[3]. "After the French seized power in Spain, Buenos Aires formed its own junta on May 25, 1810 and invited the other provinces to join."[3]. The two nations then merged and officially formed the country of Argentina. [3] "In 1806 British forces arrived the land, but their invasion failed. [3]. That boosted the confidence of the colonists who sought independence from Spain. [4]. Buenos Aires formally declared independence from Spain on July 9, 1816." [4].

"As Argentina developed and grew there also grew a rift between the capital and the provinces. Those from the capital came to known as the Unitarists while those from outside the capital were known as the Federalists."[5]. A civil war broke out and led the country into a long time period of batle due to the conflicts and differences in interests. [5]. In 1829 a new leader came to power by the name of Juan Manuel de Rosas.[5]. The new leader implemented a new military and had secret police. This brought the country back up to strength and regain its stability.[5]. Juan Manuel de Rosas was considered one of the most influential men in the 19th century and is most known for bringing Argentina out of its civil war. [6]. The new leader planned to make a new alliance with the Catholic Church as well as improve education. In 1835 Rosas was elected to a 5 year term as President and created Argentina's first dictatorship.[7]. Finally, during the 1880's prosperity and growth came to Argentina.[8]. "By the late 1920’s, Argentina had become one of the richest nations in the world."[8].


References:
[1] "Argentina History and Culture." Argentina. 2000. Interknowledge Corp.. 3 May 2008 <
http://www.geographia.com/argentina/histroy.htm>.
[2] "History ." infoplease . 2005. Pearson Education. 3 May 2008 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0856692.html>.
[3] "History or Argentina." Wikipedia . 29 APR 2008. Wikimedia Foundation Inc.. 3 May 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Argentina>.
[4] "A Brief History or Argentina." Argentina. 1999. Spain Exchange. 3 May 2008 <
http://www.spainexchange.com/guide/AR-history.htm>.
[5] "A Brief History or Argentina ." Kwintessential. 2008. Kwintessential. 3 May 2008 <http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/article/Argentina/A-Brief-History-of-Argentina/228>.
[6] Nouzeilles, Gabriela, and Graciela Montaldo. The Argentina Reader. 1st ed. North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2002.
[7] Douglas , Heath S.. "Argentina, A Brief History or the 19th Century." Historical Text. 09 Apr 1996. Historical Text Archive. 3 May 2008 <
http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=106>.
[8] Jokisch, Brad D., and Ana Margheritis. "Argentina." World Book Online Reference Center. 2008. [Place of access.] 3 May 2008 <http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar029320>.



Entertainment:
The busy lives of the people of Argentina allow for little entertainment, but when there is the chance for a little free time the people of Argentina love to watch or play sports, write, create works of art, and take advantage of the great outdoors.(“Argentina” 550-556)

Sports:
In Argentina the main sports are Soccer, Horse Racing, Polo, and Pato. Soccer is referred to as futbol.(“Argentina” 550-556) The Argentina national team has had a long history of accomplishments. In 1979 they won the Junior World Championship, 1978 and 1986 they won the World Cup, and in 1990 they were World Cup finalists. (“Argentina” 550-556) Since the 1990 World Cup finals round the Argentina Soccer team has not been able to advance further then the 2nd or 3rd round. The most famous player from the Argentina team is Diego Armando Maradona. (“Argentina” 285-321)Diego is considered to be the best player ever known to the sport of futbol and is known all around the world. Behind Diego is Sergio Goycochea. He was the substitute goal keeper during the 1986 World Cup games, and lead them to victory in the final round after the starting goal keeper was injured during the first round.
Maradona was voted the Player of the Century in 2000.
Maradona was voted the Player of the Century in 2000.
(“Argentina” 550-556)

The next major sport in Argentina is horse racing. More people are known to gamble and watch the sport, rather then actually race. (“Argentina” 285-321)Horse racing events are held during the spring and summer and consist of around 2 hours.(“Argentina” 550-556) There are several heats in which horses and their masters race, once the heats are finished there is a semi final and a championship round. Spectators are drawn by the thousands, most of which loose money to the gambling aspect of the race. (“Argentina” 550-556)Races are held almost every weekend. Another sport that invloves horses is Polo. Polo involves two teams of 4 players each on a field 300 yards long and 200 yards wide. (“Argentina” 210-221) The objective of the game is to shoot a ball through a goal that is 8 yards wide. Whoever has scored the most goals by the end of the game wins. The final major sport in Argentina is Pato. Although Pato is not the most favored sport in Argentina it is the national sport. (“Argentina” 550-556)Pato is a combination of polo and basket ball. It consists of two teams of six players who ride horseback while trying to toss a 6-handled ball through a basket.
The dimensions of the field are: length 180 to 220 m, width 80 to 90 m. (“Argentina” 285-321)The ball is made of leather, with an inflated rubber chamber and six leather handles. Its diameter is 40 cm (handle-to-handle) and its weight is 1050 to 1250 g.(“Argentina” 285-321)

Argentina has given birth to some of the most known athletes of our time. Athletes such as Juan Fangio, who won the Grand Prix championships 5 times in the 1950's. (“Argentina” 285-321)Carlos Alberto Reutemann who was also a national race car driver, Luis Angel Firpo was a well-known boxer. Also, Guillemermo Vilas, Jose Luis Clerc, and Gabriela Sabatini who were all tennis players. (“Argentina” 285-321)These atheltes are looked up to by children around the world for the amazing skill and personalities that they grew up with in Argentina.(“Argentina” 210-221)

Hobbies and Family Activities:
external image argentina_fitzroy1.jpg
When the people of Argentina are not having celebrations over the lastest win of their favorite sports team, the people are busy taking advantage of the beautiful outdoors. (“Argentina” 285-321) Because of the warm weather in Argentina activities such as camping, hunting, fishing, hiking, mountain climbing, skiing, sailing, windsurfing and cycling are all favorites amoung the people. (“Argentina” 285-321) Most of these activites are done with families because of the involved family life in Argentina.(“Argentina” 210-221)

Art, Literature, and Music

The main theme of art, poetry and music is the life of a Gaucho. (“Argentina” 285-321)This theme was first established when the spanish conquistadores invaded Argentina, and it has been around ever since. Art from the early times are Argentina is kept in the National Museum of Fine Arts. It is home to decorative arts and the national conservatory of music.(“Argentina” 210-221)


“Argentina.” New Standard Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. 2006.
(“Argentina” 550-556)
“Argentina.” Lands and Peoples. 1st ed. 1995.
(“Argentina” 285-321)
“Argentina”. The World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places. 2nd ed. 2005
(“Argentina” 210-221)
“Polo”. 2 May 2008.www.wikipedia.com/wiki/polo
“Pato”. 29 April 2008. www.wikipedia.com/wiki/pato
“Diego Maradona”. 29 April 2008.www.wikipedia.com/wiki/diego_maradona

Food:


carlitos.jpgIn Argentina, the ideal meal consists of a cut of beef and wine.[1] Often times Argentines enjoy empanadas, chorizos or morcillas, which are pork sausages, salad, different types of sweetbreads, but that’s just the appetizer![2] For the main course Argentines may have a good steak or pork. To top it all off, one might include custard topped with dulce de leche.[4]

Other meals in Argentina contain Matambre (meaning “hunger killer”) which is baked steak filled with hearts of palm, spinach, and hard-boiled eggs.[2] Salads rarely have creamy or cheesy salad dressings.[2] They are more commonly tossed with tomatoes and oil, olive oil, vinegar, or lemon juice dressing.[2] Rice pudding and almendrado (ice cream mixed in chopped almonds) are frequently eaten for desserts
.[2]

Meal times varry depending on the family, but typically breakfast is eaten between 7 and 9am.[9] Breakfast consists of hot coffee, a croissant with rich butter or dulce de leche, or french bread with an assortment of jams.[8] Lunch is severed between noon and 3pm, making it the main meal of the day.[7] Dinner takes place around 8 to 9pm in the winter and 9 to 10pm in the summer, while most dinner restaurants don't even open until 8pm.[7/9]

There are many popular restaurants that Argentines enjoy going to. One is the Parrillada.[2] The Parrillada is a steak house that cooks different types of meat.[2] People like to order the parrillada mixta which is a mixed grill.[2] Argentines are fond of ordering sausages, short ribs, kidneys, liver and even cow’s udders.[2] Another traditional grill in Argentina is Las Nazarenas.[5] It is known for its traditional meats and wine variety.[5] Las Nazarenas is considered to be one of the best restaurants in Argentina.[5] There is also a wine cellar in the restaurant with quite an assortment.[5] Rodizio is a buffet in Argentina and you pay per person and get an endless supply of whatever you want.[6] There are many choices of appetizers to serve yourself and menu of main courses.[6] Other popular restaurants are: Circolo Italiano, Gato Negro (EL), Immortales (Los), Piedemonte, Parolaccia di Mare (La), and Casa de Esteban De Luca.10] Argentines have high expectations for restaurants because they go out so frequently to their favorite restaurants.

Because of the different ethnic groups that settled in Argentina, some of the favorite foods are internationally influenced.[2] There is a combination of Italian, Jewish, Indian, Spanish, Polish, and German meals. [2]

Refrences:

[1]"Beef and Red Wine." Lands and Peoples. 6. 100th ed., 302.
[2]Gofen, Gofen. "Food." Cultures of the World Argentina., 2000. 121-125.
[3]Webb, Lois Sinaiko. "Latin America/ Argentina." Multicultural Cookbook of Life-Cycle Celebrations. Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2000. 390-391.
[4]Insight Guides South America. 4th ed. London: Apa Publications, 1991.
[5]"Las Nazarenas." Las Nazarenas Argentine Restaurante. 4 May. 2008. <[[http://www.lasnazarenas.com.ar/english/cava.html%3E.%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E%3C/span|http://www.lasnazarenas.com.ar/english/cava.html>.</span]]>
[6], Maggies. "Buenos Aires Pages by Maggies." Virtual Tourist. 4 May. 2008.
<
[[http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/ceca/17875d/2/aol_htm/Shell/Open/Command%3C/span%3E%3Cspan|http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/ceca/17875d/2/aol_htm/Shell/Open/Command<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 80%">>.

[7]"Food from Argentina." Argentina Food - Paradise for Meat Aficionados. 4 May. 2008. <[[http://www.travel-amazing-southamerica.com/argentina-food.html%3C/span%3E%3Cspan|http://www.travel-amazing-southamerica.com/argentina-food.html<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 80%">>.
[8]"Breakfast and Brunch in Argentina- an overview." BreakfastandBrunch.com. 4 May. 2008. <http://www.breakfastandbrunch.com/countries.php?cid=3>.
[9]"Homestay in Argentina." Gic Argentina. 4 May. 2008.
<
[[http://www.gicarg.org/ACCOMMODATIONS/Homestay/tabid/66/Default.aspx%3C/span%3E%3Cspan|http://www.gicarg.org/ACCOMMODATIONS/Homestay/tabid/66/Default.aspx<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 80%">>.

[10]"Argentina Restaurants." Maps of the World.com. 4 May. 2008. <http://www.mapsofworld.com/argentina/argentina-restaurants.html>.</span>