Argentina

Kara, Megan, Cassandra, Carlee

argentina.buenos.aires.lg.jpg

General Information

By:Carlee

Argentina is the is the second largest country in South America and the eighth largest in the world with a population of 37,384,816 people. With Argentina sitting on the most south eastern point of South America. The Andes Mountains rest along the western border of Argentina with Chile on the other side of the mountains. Chile is not Argentina's only neighbor. Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay also surround Argentina. In Spanish, Argentina means "silvery land" Argentina received this name when Spaniard first came and settled in Argentina in the hopes of finding silver. There is so much to be learned about Argentina and it is time to get started. Small facts are not enough. On this wikispace you will be able to find more general information including: population, regions, religion, system of government, climate/geography, economic status (currency, imports, exports) and much more. Besides general information there were will be history of the country, entertainment and lastly food and cuisine customs. (Shields 9,43) (Burgan 5-6)


Regions

Argentina is made up of six regions. these regions are the Parana Plateau, Gernachaco, Pampas, Monte, Patagonia and the Andes Mountains.
The Parana Plateau is an extension of the highlands of southern Brazil. This is the wettest area
granchaco.gif of Argentina consisting of a dense forest foliage. The summers here are extremely hot. A well know tourist site of the Parana Plateau is the Iguazu falls. The main products of this region consist of tobacco, timber and yerba mate.
The Gran Chaco is mainly flat with a subtropical climate. The picture to the right is a picture of the marshlands in the Gran Chaco. The marshlands remain the most part of the year because of the poor drainage in there is. The Gran Chaco does stay flooded in more than just the marshlands because of all the rain that area receives. Livestock, cotton and wood from the quebracho trees are the main regions main products.
The Pamas is a huge grass land. The soil in the Pampas is great for crops. The soil is very deep and rich, and is composed of fine sand, clay and silt. This soil is practically free of all pebbles and rocks. With the great grass lands in the Pampas it has exports of wheat, alfalfa, corn and flax, witch are all crops that are grown and product well. The Pampas is home to cattle and sheep ranching due to the great land available for the animals. along side ranching dairy farms also provide an export for the land.
The Monte region has a wide spread of vegetation across its land. There are many mines in this region that have wide range of natural resources. These resources include that of lead, zinc, tin, copper, salt and oil from the ground. The towns also product there own products of wine, sugar, fruit, corn and livestock. The people living in the Monte region were very well taken care of thr
patagonia_cropped_570W.jpgough the many resources they had on hand. Patagonia picture down to left!!!
The Patagonia is a gigantic, bl
eak, and windswept plateau. The Patagonia has many large rivers that flow east to the sea. There are many river mouth ports. These ports are used for transportation and trade. The cool dry climate of the Patagonia is not very conducive for agriculture unless the ground is irrigated. Although it is not the best ground it still works nicely for grazing grounds for flocks of sheep. The main products are that of coal and oil.
The Andes Mountains are located all along the west side of Argentina. Most of the mountain peeks don't reach higher than 12,000 feet. The Andes Mountains contain the highest peek in both North and South America and the largest peek in the Western hemisphere. The only peeks that reaches higher than that of the Aconcagua at 22,834 feet is mountains located in central Asia.
(Burgan 7) (Shields 9-15) (Dougherty 13) (Streissguth 9,11-12) (Gofen 11)

Religion

There are many types of religion practiced in Argentina that are practiced are: Christianity, Catholicism, Jesuits, Islam and Jewish.sanfran.jpg (San Francixco church in Salta Provience Argentina)
Roman Catholicism is the official religion of Argentina. Nearly 92 percent of Argentines are Catholic and less than 20 percent of them attend church regularly. Many have a very relaxed view when it come to religion. The government helps to support the church. In return the church groups ran their own churches, hospitals, social centers and cemeteries. There are also many religious schools, and religion is typically not taught in public schools.
There is such a wide spread of different religions, the other 8 percent of Argentines believe in many different religious groups. Two of the eight percent are Protestants and another two percent are Jewish. The remaining four percent is a mix of Muslims and Atheists.
A very neat way some have come to worship in rural areas, mestizos have combined different elements into their worship. They have joined together animistic religions with catholic practices. By this they it means that they pray to the spirits of nature and also to the the Christian gods as well. Through out the course of the year they celebrate many festivals that are dedicated to their indigenous gods. some of the beliefs that the people have as based off of the teachings from their ancestors the Yamana.


System of Government

Argentina's official name is Argentina republic. This republic was established on May 1, 1853 the same year the constitution was established in the U.S. The republic is made up of 23 providences which call for and elected president and congress. The congress is set up as fallows: A chamber of deputies with 257 members then a senate of 72 members, three from each province.(So here is the deal i've done loads of research and no matter what i find the number of members in senate and the number of providences and the amount of people from each province never add up. i cant seem to figure out what the deal is, it is really confusing. hmmm!) Each providence has its own governor and provincial legislature. Each providence has the right to administer tis own justice and educational system.
Argentina has a Judicial system of courts and judges that is set up like that of Americas Judicial system.
working along side th government is the armed forces. The armed forces are voluntary but requires young healthy men and women at times. the presidents over the last century have had a hard time keeping the support of the military. One of the greatest challenges Argentina has meet is that of developing a stable democratic government in which can withstand pressure and demands from other militarizes. (Gofen 77-81) (Streissguth 35)


Table Of Contents:
1. History of the Country
2. Entertainment
3. Food and Cuisine Customs
4. Works cited



History of the Country


The country of Argentina was first explored by Juan Diaz de Solis in 1516. Argentina was created under a external image Juan_D14.jpgslowly growing spanish colonial rule. The site of Buenos Aires was settled in1580.There were invading British forces that were expelled by the people of Argentina between 1806-1807(1). After the famous spanish explorer, Napoleon, conqueored Spain in 1808, Argentina finally developed it's own Government in 1810. Their independence was finally declared on July 9th 1816(1).

During World War I Argentina had kept neutral during battle and it had chosen to do the same during World War II(1). In 1921 Argentina suffered from a great depression (3). Towards the end of the war they avowed war on the Axis powers on March 27th, 1945. Another important man during this time was the army colonel, Juan D. Peron.
 Juan D. Peron
Juan D. Peron
He won the presidential elections in 1946 along with 1951. After Juan Peron's political partner and second wife died, a very quick three years later Peron quickly slipped into exile. Argentina entered a long period of military dictatorship with brief intervals of constitutional government (1) In the following years of 1958 Arturo Frondizi becomes the president of Argentina. Juan Peron then declares that he wants to return to Argentina and when he does he is given the title as president. Peron's third wife, Isabel Peron, is also give a title of being Vice President. Isabel Peron is overthrown by military Junta on march 24th (2). The army commander in chief, General Jorge Videla, began the launch the Dirty war to suppress opposition (2). Somewhere between 9,000 to 30,000 people of Argentina were either abducted or tortured or killed by various security external image image?id=64687&rendTypeId=4forces. General Videla then stepped down and the country was turned over to General Viola, but was quickly removed and was replaced by General Galtieri (2). The General sent troops that were not prepared to the islands of Falkland where they lost 600+ soldiers (2). Eventually on the 14th of June in 1982 Argentina did surrender but they did not give up their claim of the Falkland islands (3).

Argentina then began a democratiuc civilian government in December of 1983, and
Fernando De Le Rua
Fernando De Le Rua
three very influencial mena and former presidents were convicted and sentenced to prison for their involvement in murder and torture (3). Shortly after that time Carlos Saul Menem was elected to be the president of Argentina. During his presidency he changed the curency rate so that the Argentine peso was a ratio of one: one with the U.S dollar. After Menem's time in office Fernando De Le Rua was elected and raised the taxes and made huge spending cuts (3). In 2000 De Le Rua apologized for giving a sanctuary to the Nazi's in World War II. The houses of congress was then taken over by the Justicialist Party and people were then afraid that the Justicialist party would lower the monetary value of the peso so people haistly tried to withdraw all of their money from the banks but were unsuccessful because of the monthly limit the bank put on the amount of money you could withdraw(3). Soon after Fernando De Le Rua resigned from presidency (3). He left the presidency with a foregin debt of $132 billion dollars.


Entertainment

Much of Argentina’s art is extremely colorful. One of Argentina’s most famous artists is Oscar Agustin Alejandro Schulz Solari, or
Xul Solar. (artcyclopedia) Xul Solar is most famous for his amazing watercolor style. Another great artist from Argentina is Ciruelo. Ciruelo is a fantasy artist and sculptor. (Ferradas)
CirueloCabral45.jpg
Evermeet by Ciruelo Cabral


Argentina is known for it's extraordinary night life. Because of the many clubs music is an important part to Argentina's culture. The
Tango orignated in Argentina. (Ferradas) The Tango changed from just music to music with meaning, using words. Some of the most famous singers in the tango world include Carlos Gardel and Edmundo Rivero. (Rader) While the United States was at it's peak of Jazz Argentina was in what's known as the "Golden Age of Tango". (Rader) Now tango is popular world wide.
Carlos_Gardel.jpg
Carlos Gardel 1933


Although the United States is mostly known for producing major motion pictures Argentina is also. In fact the first animated feature films were created in Argentina. One of the first to make an animated film was Quirino Cristiani in the late 1910's. (Canemaker) Argentina was at it's peak of producing movies during the same time as the tango. (1930's) Most of the starsin Argentina theatres were often famous tango icons such as Tito Lusiardo and Roberto Escalada.
drama.jpg
(Canemaker)

In most of South America football or soccer is the most significant sports. Well this is no diffrent from Argentina. Argentina's National Soccer team is a strong competitor to the other countries of the world. (Moorhouse) Also another sport that has become very popular in Argentina is basketball. Many basketball players in the NBA and basketball leagues in Europe are from Argentina. Some other sports that are common include: volleyball, rugby, and tennis. (Ferradas)
soccer_jersey.jpg
Argentina's futbol jersey

Argentina's National Holidays: (In order by calender date)
New Years Day- Jan. 1st; Memorial Day- March 21st; Independence Day(from Spain)- July 9th; Columbus Day- Oct. 12th; Christmas Eve and Day- Dec. 24th and 25th; New Years Eve- December 31st (Hamre)
wp_fireworks_dual3.jpg
Independence Day celebrates the seperation from Spain










Food and Cuisine Customs

By: Kara Burgardt
Food is a huge part of everyday life in Argentina. Most Argentinians eat four meals each day (Argentina Food 2). The first meal is desayuno (breakfast) which is a light meal which consists of rolls and jam with coffee (Argentina Food 2). The next meal is el amuerzo (Lunch) where many people eat meat and vegetables or salads (Argentina Food 2). After work but before dinner, Argentinians go to confiterias (cafes) to drink expresso and eat picadas, small dishes of cheese, mussels, salami, anchovies, olives and peanuts (Argentina Food 2). The last meal of the day is cena (dinner) just like most places in the world.
meat2.jpg
“The food of Argentina is a blend of Italian, Jewish, Spanish, Polish, and German foods” (Gofen 122). “A typical meal in Argentina consists of some kind of beef, French fries, salad, and red wine” (Gofen 121). Meat is usually the main dish at each meal accompanied by many different side dishes. A common side dish is “Matambre meaning hunger killer, is an appetizer/ side dish of baked marinated flank steak stuffed with spinach, hearts of palm, and ham or hard-boiled eggs” (Gofen 122). Salads are usually tossed with oil often olive oil and vinegar and lemon juice (Gofen 122). “The creamy and cheesy salad dressing of the United States are rare in Argentina” (Gofen 122). In Argentina soup is an important part of the peoples diet (Traditional Argentina Food 1). Guiso is popular Argentina soup (Traditional Argentina Food 1).argentina_soup.jpg The soup served in Argentina is a much thicker soup than the soup served in the United States (Traditional Argentina Food 1). At all Argentina meal there is always bread (Traditional Argentina Food 1). The most common beverages served to go along with the cuisine are wines and yerba mate(Argentina tea).Yerba_mate_2.jpg

Dessert in Argentina is also a big part of Argentina Cuisine as well. “A few common desserts include fresh fruit and cheese and the much-loved dulce de leche” (Gofen 122). “Rice pudding and almendrado ice cream rolled in crushed almonds also satisfy the Argentine sweet tooth” (Gofen 122). Churros are also a favorite in Argentina cuisine (Traditional Argentina Food 1).Dulce_de_leche2.jpg

Some common restaurants in Argentina are: Cabana las lilas which is open from noon to midnight daily, Café Tortoni which is open 7am to 2pm daily, and Los immortals 11am to midnight daily. (Popular Restaurants 1)

Food and cuisine is very important to the people of Argentina because they have certain traditions they follow and each meal is a time for the people to come together as a family and celebrate.




Works cited

General Information-

1. Burgan, Michael. A True Book Argentina . New York : Children's Press, 1999.
2. Streissguth, Tom. Argentina in Pictures. Minneapolis, Minn: Lerner Publications Company, 2003.
3. Doughertry, Terri. Argentina. San Diago: Lucent Books and Thomson learning, 2003.
4. Gofen, Ethel. Cultures of the World Argentina. 2nd. New York : Benchmark Books, 2002.
5. Shields, Charles. Argentina. Philadelphia: Mason Crest Publishers, 2004.

History of the country-
(1) "Argentina: History, Geography, Government, and Culture." Infoplease.
© 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.
04 May. 2008 http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107288.html.
(2) "Argentinean History." Sin Fronteras.
04 May. 2008 http://www.spanishsinfronteras.com.ar/history.html
(3) Ratnikas, Algis. Today in History. Online. [[http://timelines.ws/TODAY.HTML%3C/span%3E%3Cspan|http://timelines.ws/TODAY.HTML<span]]
Wilkie, Richard W. "Argentina."
Worldbookonline.com

(4) "Juan Diaz DE Solis," Virtual American Biographies. 2000.
Evisum Inc. May 4 2008.
[[http://www.famousamericans.net/juandiazdesolis/%3C/span%3E%3Cspan|http://www.famousamericans.net/juandiazdesolis/<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 120%">

(5) "Juan Peron," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007
[[http://encarta.msn.com%3c/span%3E%3Cspan|http://encarta.msn.com<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 120%"> © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
(6)"Argentina," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007
[[http://encarta.msn.com%3c/span%3E%3Cspan|http://encarta.msn.com<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 120%"> © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
(7) "Dirty War." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2 May 2008, 15:53 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 May 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dirty_War&oldid=209714900>.


Entertainment-
Canemaker, John, and Peter Weishar. "Animation." World Book Online Reference Center. 2008. 4 May 2008 <http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar022610>.</span>

Ferradas, Carmen Alicia. "Argentina." Countries and Their Cultures. Ed. Carol R. Ember and Melvin Ember. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 77-92. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. THUNDERRIDGE HIGH SCHOOL. 4 May 2008 <[[http://go.galegroup.com/ps/start.do?p=GVRL&u=dcsd_ths%3E.%3C/span%3C/span%3E%3Cspan|http://go.galegroup.com/ps/start.do?p=GVRL&u=dcsd_ths>.</span<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 80%; COLOR: #cc65e6; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman', Times, serif">>

Hamre, Bonnie. " Holidays and Festivals in Argentina". South America Travel Guide : 1998. 4 May 2008 <
[[http://gosouthamerica.about.com/cs/argentina/l/blholidays.htm%3C/span%3E%3Cspan|http://gosouthamerica.about.com/cs/argentina/l/blholidays.htm<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 120%; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman', Times, serif">>

Moorhouse, James. "Soccer: In Argentina" World Book Online Reference Center. 2008. 4 May 2008 <
http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar517320>.</span>

Rader, Patricia W. "Tango." World Book Online Reference Center. 2008. 4 May 2008 <http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar546480>.

http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/.html</span>

[[http://www.glitter-graphics.com/%3C/span%3E%3Cspan|http://www.glitter-graphics.com/<span]] style="FONT-SIZE: 80%; COLOR: #cc65e6; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman', Times, serif"> (argentina flag, and all entertainment pics)



Food and Cuisine customs-
By: Kara Burgardt

1.) “Argentina Food.” Argentina Food. 3 May 2008.
<[[http://www.argentour.com/en/argentina/argentina_food.php>|http://www.argentour.com/en/argentina/argentina_food.php
2.) Blashfield, Jean F. Argentina Enchantment of the World. New York: Children’s Press, 2007.

3.) Dougherty, Terri. Argentina Modern Nations of the World. San Diego: Lucent Books, 2003.
4.) Gofen, Ethel. Cultures of the World Argentina. New York: Benchmark Books, 2004.
5.) “Popular Traditional Argentina Food.” Argentina main food meals. 2005. 4 April 2008
<[[[[http://www.popular-traditional-argentina-food.com/maindishes.html>|http://www.popular-traditional-argentina- food.com/maindishes.html|http://www.popular-traditional-argentina-food.com/maindishes.html>|http://www.popular-traditional-argentina- food.com/maindishes.html]]
6.) “Top 10 Popular Restaurants in Buenos Aires.” Popular Restaurants in Buenos Aires. 4 May

2008 <http://gosouthamerica.about.com/od/balodgings/tp/BArestaurants.htm
Pictures:
<
http://farm1.static.flickr.com/152/332636333_bb8bde2702.jpg
<http://images.dragonwater.com/images/products/118.jpg
<http://www.homesteadrestaurant.net/images/argentina_soup.jpg
<
http://goldbug.smugmug.com/photos/171244142-S.jpg</span>
<http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/DulceDeLeche.jpg/180px-DulceDeLeche.jpg
<http://www.goodairs.com/uploaded_images/meat_argentina_2b-746502.jpg <http://throughtheconstructionzone.com/albums/patagonia/011_Meat_Argentina_Style.jpg
<http://farm1.static.flickr.com/25/54705441_aa9266758e.jpg
<http://img2.travelblog.org/Photos/9721/35667/t/189919-debbie-s-family-for-dinner-0.jpg